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The following is the pre-institute assignment, I am in teh process of looking to find more references that are related closely to my refined question as well.


My project focuses more on how to assess student learning when new materials and
classroom activities are introduced. In 2004, I created an elective course on
industrial microbiology for third and fourth year level students and have taught this
course since 2005 in the winter semester. Among other activities, there are three
mandatory fieldtrips arranged for the class: Armstrong Cheese Factory, Granite
Creek Winery, and Kamloops Beer Brewery. Student evaluation, in the students'
own words, showed that students learned a great deal on the applications of
microorganisms and their metabolites, as well as some possible career paths related
to microbiology. Although, I believe that these field trips enhance the students’ inclass
learning, I have difficulties in assessing these experiences in more concrete and
quantitative ways.

Therefore, I would like to be more effective in evaluating the impacts of field trips on
student learning in an upper-level microbiology course.
For this pre-institute annotated bibliography assignment, the first challenge I faces
was what the appropriate keywords are. “Field trip assessment” did not work at all
in any databases, so I switched to “assessment in science teaching” and “approaches
in science teaching and learning”. The listed references below were what I found
that most related on what I would like to learn:

Penwell RA and Padilla MA, "Developing Attitude Surveys for an Advanced Placement
Environmental Science Class", Journal of Cognitive Affective Learning, 3(2): 11-17,

This article concerns the reliability and validity of a survey designed and used for
measurement of the attitude of the students their Advanced Placement
Environmental Science (APES) class. To construct the 42 item attitude scale, the
authors followed the model developed by Haladyna, Olsen, and Shaughnessy in
1982. The model suggested that there are three variables that contribute
significantly to students’ attitude towards science. These are student variables,
teacher variables, and learning environment variable. In the paper, to measure
content validity, reliability, and construct validity of the survey, Cronbach’s alpha and
item-total correlations were demonstrated from a pilot project's test results. This
paper gave me an idea that there is significantly more for me to learn in how to
design an attitude survey effectively.

Tanner K and Allen D, "Approaches to Biology teaching and Learning:
From Assays to Assessments-On Collecting Evidence in Science Teaching", Cell
Biology Education 3: 69-74, 2004.

This paper gave me a chill while reading given the fact that I have always wanted to
learn more about classroom assessment techniques. The paper hit me right in the
heart of finding and how to embark on my quest of being a more skilful and effective
teacher. The paper describes the definitions and classifications of assessment and
moves smoothly on to various methods exampling classroom assessment in different
scenarios and disciplines. Additionally, as a scientist, it is useful to have it spelled
right out what the similarities and contrasts are when it comes to classroom
assessment and scientific research. At the end, it introduced resources on classroom
assessment to guide the way in (in which the main book it introduced is the one I
bought a few months ago and I am looking into the references to get more papers
for furtherreadings.)
Note: I kept on seeing Allen and Tanner’s works referenced in various papers as well.
It seems that they are well-known in scholarly teaching. Also, I am reading a book
entitled “Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers” (Jossey Bass Higher and Adult
Education Series) by Thomas A. Angelo and K. Patricia Cross (Paperback - Mar 12,
1993) to learn more about assessment techniques.


Phillips AR, Robertson AL, Batzli J, Harris M, and Miller S, "Aligning Goals,
Assessments, and Activities: An Approach to Teaching PCR and Gel Electrophoresis",
Life Science Education 7: 96-106, 2008.

The authors did a great job of presenting what they did (introducing research
oriented exercises) to enhance student learning. As a scientist and an educator, this
work was thought provoking for me in terms of understanding how important
aligning teaching and learning goals, designing activities appropriately, and in
creating appropriate and valid evaluative assessments. This paper demonstrated the
combination of “hands-on and minds-on components” and how to make the two
processes go well together to promote critical-thinking and analytical skills in
students learning. I learned more about ways in cooperating formative and
summative assessments, new to me is the retention assessment where the authors
survey whether and how much students have knowledge retention five months after
the course. At the end of the report, they also gave the address online where we
can access supplemental materials. All in all, I am impressed with the thoughts,
planning, time, and work that the authors put into publishing this.


Preszler RW, Dawe A, Shuster CB, and Shuster M, "Assessment of the Effects of
Students Response Systems on Student Learning and Attitudes over a Broad Range
of Biology Courses", Life Science Education 6: 29-41, 2007.

This article demonstrated impacts of cooperative learning method in this case the
use of clickers; electronic students response system, on student learning and
impression in six biology courses. The results showed that, though disparity in
impression of students observed in lower and upper level biology courses, overall the
clickers seemed to make lectures (traditional study method) more interesting.
Additionally, improvement of attendance and material understanding in students
were seen while there was an unclear conclusion on whether the use of clickers in
classroom would help with performance in examination.
In this study, a group of biology educators were assigned for the tasks, among them
there was a difference in terms of newness to the use of clickers in classes, some of
them never used clickers before, whereas others had. So, it would be more
interesting to point out whether this quality of professors teaching classes will yield
any differences in results or not.


Flaspohler MR, Rux EM, and Flaspohler JA, “The Annotated Bibliography and Citation
Behavior: Enhancing Student Scholarship in an Undergraduate Biology Course” Life
Science Education 6: 350-360, 2007.

Though it superficially seems that this work may be of a far distance from the focus
of my research, it is actually not. I want to learn more about different ways of
assessment of student learning in science at different levels and this paper gave me
that edge as well as others.
The authors introduced collaborative teaching (science faculty and
librarians) approach that was created to boost “information literacy” in biology
students. The authors deigned and employed annotated bibliography and citation
assignment in a biology class for their research (term) paper. They used grading
rubrics to evaluate the work of students. The results showed that students gained
more knowledge in choosing sources of literatures, writing annotated bibliography of
their own research, and a reduction in plagiarism. One thing that bothered me after
reading the paper was that I did not find where the supplemental materials can be

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