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Achacoso, M. V. (2004). Post-test analysis: A tool for developing students' metacognitive awareness and

self-regulation. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 100, 115–119.

Achacoso argues that increasing metacognition through exercises with post-test analysis will increase self-regulated learning in college students.  Achacoso utilizes calibration and perception of performance and self-reported effort on tests to help students identify the way in which their learning strategies contributed to their struggles and success.  She found that her strategies increased metacognition awareness as reflected in improved test scores and increased motivation as reflected in more accurate calibration of performances. 

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning

works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

This text suggests seven strategies to increase student learning based on current pedagogical research on how the learning process works.  It was written as a toolkit for instructors seeking diverse examples of activities for a wide array of courses rather than specific to a certain discipline.  Appendix F was utilized towards the methodology for my study, outlining the purpose of the ‘exam wrapper’ and providing one example of a sample wrapper, portions of which I considered when creating my own cognitive wrapper.

Coutinho, S., Wiemer-Hastings, K., Skowronshi, J. J., & Britt, M. A. (2005). Metacognition, need for

cognition and use of explanations during ongoing learning and problem solving. Learning and Individual Differences, 15, 321-337.

The authors review the relationship between metacognition and task performance and provide results to support their hypothesis consistent feedback with explanations can increase metacognition as students calibrate their learning.  Coutinho and others completed two experiments after giving students a set of analytical problems from the GRE to establish a baseline.  The first experiment provided students a choice of answers or answers with explanations while the second experiment provided students with only the option of answers with explanations.  This design enabled the researchers to assess the level of cognition of each student, their inclination towards metacognition and the impact of this metacognitive activity on performance.

Dunning, D., Johnson, K., Ehrlinger, J., and K. Kruger. (2003) Why people fail to recognize their own

incompetence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 83-87.

Dunning and others present data to support the disconnect between ability of poor performers to assess their incompetence and performance.  They argue that the disconnect is caused by the overlap in metacognitive skills necessary for accurate assessment.  They summarize additional experiments, including one in which students were given a lecture teaching them skills for future problem-solving and the opportunity to review their previous answers.  They found that these small activities increased assessment although not necessary overall scores. 

Lovett, M. C. (2013).  Make exams worth more than grades: Using exam wrappers to promote

metacognition. In M. Kaplan, N. Silver, N. Lavaque-Manty & D. Meizlish (Eds.), Using

reflection and metacognition to improve student learning (18-41). San Francisco, CA: Stylus.

This text emphasizes the importance of metacognition as an important tool to improve student learning and provides an assortment of activities by which to implement cognitive activities.  Lovett outlined the main components of an exam wrapper, an activity which guides students through the process of reflecting on their preparation and results of preparation from the exam.  The wrapper takes this cognitive activity one step further by encouraging students to develop a specific plan to increase performance on future assessments.  Examples provided by Lovett were utilized to create my own cognitive activity.

Ottenhoff, J. (2011). Learning how to learn: Metacognition in liberal education. Liberal Education,

Summer/Fall, 28-33.

Ottenhoff presents a summary of research activities on the topic of metacognition from the Collegium on Student Learning through the Associated Colleges of the Midwest.  Participants completed a series of classroom interventions, some which I have found the peer-reviewed publications.  An overall result however was that metacognitive awareness activities did not necessary lead directly to content mastery.  One of the participants suggests that this can be due to differences in lower vs higher-achieving students, where lower-achieving students did not complete exam wrappers as fully as higher-achieving students, despite their need for this intervention.  Even more explicit metacognitive interventions may be necessary for the lower-achieving students.

Paris, S. G. & Paris, A. H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning.

Educational Psychologist, 36, 89-101. 

This article presents a summary on the importance and application of strategies for reading and writing, metacognition and self-assessment during classroom activities.  They argue that whether or not the implementation of these activities is done as a specific skill set or as a series of developmental activities, both the instructor and the student will directly benefit.  For the self-assessment section of the paper, the authors summarize that there were improvements in self-assessment with directed cognitive activities.  They argue that this improvement can also be reflected in more positive attitudes about the education process.

Stanton, J. D., Neider, X. N., Gallegos, I. J. & Clark, N. C. (2015). Differences in metacognitive

regulation in introductory biology students: When prompts are not enough. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 14, 1-12.

Stanton and others studied the results of metacognitive wrappers on exams and found that while some students were able to implement revised study strategies, additional interventions would be necessary for those that failed to implement strategies.  This result inspired them to propose a four-level model on metacognitive-regulation development which can assist instructors in improving metacognition within students.  This recent paper will assist me in placing my research results in the context of our current knowledge of student metacognition.

Tanner, K. D. (2012). Promoting student metacognition. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 11, 113-120.

Tanner presents multiple activities useful for instructors to encourage student metacognition, in particular within the field of Biology.  She translates the current state of knowledge on metacognition into the context of those traditional difficulties within the biology discipline.  I utilized derivations of the questions to promote and integrate student metacognition in the formation of my intervention.

Thompson, D. R. (2012). Promoting metacognitive skills in intermediate Spanish: Report of a classroom

research project. Foreign Language Annals, 45, 447-462.

Thompson used guided metacognitive activities in an attempt to promote student awareness of strengths and weaknesses in the learning process.  He found that guided reflective activities increased metacognition more than cumulative testing, which required repeated recall but did not alter student’s ability to determine their learning deficiencies.  He argues that even small, focuses activities can result in cognitive gain.  Thompson believes these strategies can be most effective in first-year courses, when college study strategies are first being developed.

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