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References
1. Strobel, Johannes & van Barneveld, Angela.   For what learning outcomes is PBL effective?
            Retrieved from http://www.sefi.be/wp-content/abstracts/1005.pdf
The article gives a clear definition of what Problem Based Learning is according to Barrows definitions using four key components. These are ill-structured problems with multiple possible solutions, student-centered approach, teachers as facilitators or tutors, problem is authentic. This gives a clear indication that the Case Study Method of teaching is a type of PBL; therefore, all literature germane to my research will be under the keyword of PBL. This is a meta-analysis of research of a qualitative type that examines the effectiveness of PBL. Conclusions drawn are listed in the abstract. 
 
2. Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of research. J. Engr. Education,       93(3), 223-231.
This is a review article that examines the effectiveness of active learning. Again, it defines active learning and places PBL as one instructional method in a group of types of active learning pedagogy. This review makes conclusions about the effectiveness of PBL.
 
3. Belland, Brian R., French, Brian F., & Ertmer, Peggy A. (2009). Validity and problem-based             learning research: A review of instruments used to assess intended learning outcomes.       Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 3(1).
This article discusses the problems with the research in PBL outcomes. It has a good discussion on the validity and reliability of methods used to assess learning outcomes.   It also gives the types of instruments utilized in assessments. Again, the research results were unclear. 
 
 
4. Choon-Huat Koh, G.,  Khoo, Hoon Eng, Wong, M., & Koh, D. (2008). The effects of           problem-based learning during medical school on physician competency: a systematic       review. Canadian Medical Association Journal 178(1), 34-41.
Review of research on learning outcomes of using PBL in medical school. They examined the quality indicators of the various studies. The quality indicators were randomization, sample size, objective assessment, and response rate. 
 
5. Walker, A, & Leary, H. (2009). A problem-based learning meta analysis: differences across  problem types, implementation types, disciplines and assessment levels.      Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 3(1), 6-28.
An excellent review and critique of variance among findings in many studies. It gives insight as to how to make a study much more standard so results can be generalized. It points out the many problems with research in PBL and is almost discouraging. It reviews several discipline areas so is not just limited to medical school teaching. This article would serve as a guide to setting up a research problem and the downfalls that one must guard against. 
 
 
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