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Beatty, I. (2004). Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communication Systems. EDUCASUE Center Appl. Res (ECAR) Res Bull., 2004(3), 1-13.
 
This paper was used as a reference in several of the papers that I read. The author discusses how classroom communications systems now commonly referred to as clickers can transform a classroom by engaging students and encouraging them to become active participants in the learning process. Clickers allow the classroom to become more dynamic and interactive, and this helps to keep students interested and attentive. One thing that the author alluded to is the importance of the type of questions that are used. The most effective use of clickers in the classroom is to use reasoning based questions. All the answers should be discussed before giving the correct (if any) answer.
 
 
 
Caldwell, J. (2007). Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best-Practice Tips. CBE Life Sci Educ., 6, 9–20. http://www.lifescied.org/cgi/reprint/6/1/9, accessed July 1, 2009
 
The article offers some best practice tips for effect use of clickers in the classroom. I like this article because it gives specific tips on using clickers. The thing that stood out most to me is the need for questions to be well written, requiring the use higher order reasoning skills. Many times I find myself using questions requiring simple recall. While these have a place in the classroom, to stimulate interest, concentration and enjoyment, clicker questions have to be designed to favor learning.
 
 
Almarode, J. and Almarode, D. (2008). Energizing Students. The Science Teacher, 75(9), 32-35.
 
This paper is interesting in that the authors suggest that there may be a link between the brain and teaching and learning. As the attention spans of students are short – approximately 15 minutes, they suggest that the use of energizers in the classroom helps students to focus on tasks in the classroom.    Energizers are quick activities such as movement which give the breaks students need to help them process material more efficiently. The result is 1) increasing blood flow, oxygen and glucose to the brain 2) an increase in the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, neurotransmitters which have been implicated in learning, emotion and retention 3) proving time off for the brain input system 4) stimulating the attentional system of the brain.
 
Gauci, S., Dantas. A., Williams, D., and Kemm, R. (2009). Promoting Student-Centered Active Learning in Lectures with a Personal Response System. Advan Physiol Edu , 33, 60-71. http://advan.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/33/1/60, accessed July 1, 2009
 
This study focused on using clickers to promote active learning in a large classroom rather than formative or summative assessment. Data was collected from approximately 145 students in a second year physiology course. I liked that students were surveyed on their opinions of clicker technology. The paper mainly evaluates the responses to the survey. In general, 80% of students perceived that the use of clickers contributed to their learning and understanding of the course. Students were more engaged in lectures where clickers were used, and they found voting to be intellectually stimulating. Overall, students benefited from the usage of clickers leading an improvement in course grades as compared to two previous years.
 
 
Stowell, J., and Nelson, J. (2007), Benefits of Electronic Audience Response Systems on Student Participation, Learning and Emotion. Teaching of Psychology, 34(4), 253-258.
 
The authors looked at the effect that clickers had on academic emotions in addition to the impact on student participation and academic performance. Although emotion is an integral facet of learning, memory and motivation, there are few studies on its role in learning and achievement. This study addressed this issue by studying 140 students volunteers enrolled an undergraduate introductory psychology course in a simulated lecture. The students were assigned to one of 4 groups – 1) standard lecture, lecture with formal review questions responded to by 2) raising of hands 3) response cards or 4) clickers. They were surveyed using the Academic Emotions Questionnaire in various academic settings. The results showed that the clicker group had the highest level of participation, and in addition, they experienced slightly more enjoyment and less boredom than other groups. 
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