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Improving and Aligning

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Old learning Objective

a. Describe the differences between volume depletion and dehydration.

 

New Learning Objective

a. Predict conditions that can lead to hypervolemia, hypovolemia and/or osmotic imbalances.

 

Assessments for New Objective

These assessments are meant to be used either in formative or a summative manner and map to the higher level unit objectives. Having multiple "isomorphic" questions allows me to select one or two for in class, as well as have questions for exams. I typically give short answer, but am writing multiple choice so that I can adapt them to the use of "clickers" or just leave off the choices if I want to use them as short answer. 

 

1.      A patient with the flu has lost 10 lbs in the last week. You suspect that they may be dehydrated. The most useful lab test for confirming the condition would be:
a.       Plasma potassium levels.
b.      Plasma colloid osmotic pressure
c.       Blood pressure
d.      Plasma sodium levels.
 
2.      A patient with the flu has lost 10 lbs in the last week. They are diagnosed with dehydration. What effect is this condition having on their plasma osmolarity and their intracellular fluid volume, respectively?
a.       No change, decreased
b.      Increased, no change
c.       Increased, decreased
d.      No change, increased
e.       Decreased, increased
 
3.      A patient with the flu has lost 10 lbs in the last week due to fluid loss. What is most likely happening to urine output? Sketch a feedback loop that is most likely involved in this process.
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.      A patient has a renal artery stenosis, which is a condition that limits the amount of blood flow to the kidneys. You would expect this patient to develop:
a.       Hyperkalemia
b.      Hypokalemia
c.       Hypervolemia
d.      Hypovolemia
e.       Dehydration
 
5.      A patient has a renal artery stenosis, which is a condition that limits the amount of blood flow to the kidneys. You would expect this patient to have a large change in which hormone?
a.       Antidiuretic hormone
b.      Parathyroid hormone
c.       Angiotensin II
d.      Epinephrine
e.       Cortisol
 
6.      Which of the following conditions is most likely to lead to hypervolemia:
a.       Renal artery stenosis.
b.      Drinking 2 gallons of water over a 4 hour period.
c.       Drinking 2 gallons of Gatorade over a 4 hour period.
d.      A condition where the kidneys are non-responsive to ADH
 
7.      When I take a bath, I get wrinkled fingers. What could I add to my bath water in order to prevent my fingers from wrinkling? How much would I have to add to my 20 gallons of bath water?
 
 
 
 
 
 
8.      I get thirsty while at the beach and drink a liter of seawater, which has an osmolarity of approximately 2000 mOsm. Soon I am confused and am having mentation changes. This change in mental status is most likely caused by:
a.       Hypotension
b.      Hypoglycemia
c.       Swelling of neuronal cells
d.      Crenation of neuronal cells
 
9.      I get thirsty while at the beach and drink a liter of seawater, which has an osmolarity of approximately 2000 mOsm. Sketch the feedback loop that you would expect to be most involved in responding to this challenge.
 
10. I get thirsty at the beach and drink a liter of seawater, what would you expect to happen to urine output and urine osmolarity, respectively?
a.       Increase, increase
b.      Increase, decrease
c.       Decrease, increase
d.      Decrease, decrease
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