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Exam Question Mapping

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Course: "Organisms" (Fall Semester- Freshmen Biology Majors, Spring Semester- Upperclassmen Health Science Majors)

Weeks 1-3 of course covering chemical evolution (incl. macromolecules), cell membranes and membrane transport

Objective I

Students will be able to sketch at time-line to show Oparin and Haldane's theory of chemical evolution from prebiotic earth to a living cell.

Previous exam questions that map to objective I:

Exam I Q3. Circle the Statement/s that are true about chemical evolution.

A. Formaldehyde and Hyrdrogen Cyanide would have had to be present on earth before formation of amino acids, sugars and other biological molecules could be formed.

B. Formaldehyde and Hydrogen Cyanide must have been present when earth formed because they could not have been synthesized in the condition of early earth.

C. Formaldehyde and Hydrogen Cyanide are two of the molecules that Miller colectd in his chemical evolution experiment.

Blooms level 1-2 (Knowledge and Comprehension)

Idea for new higher level blooms question

Objective II

Students will understand the laws of thermodynamics and how they apply to chemical evolution

Previous question that maps to objective II

Exam I Q1. Chose the correct statement below (A or B) and then EXPLAIN why the other answer is wrong.

A. During chemical evolution, light energy was converted to chemical energy.

B. During chemical evolution, light energy was converted to biological molecules like amino acids and nucleotides

Blooms level 1-2 (Knowledge, Comprehension)

Objective III

Students will be able to explain how the results of Stanley Miller's experiment support's Oparine and Haldane's theory of chemical evolution and  the unanswered questions in the theory of Chemical evolution that Miller's expeiment and others have not been able to address.

Previous exam questions that map to Objective III

Exam I Q4. A. The large flask at the top represented the ocean and was sparked with electricity to stimulate energy

B. The large flask at the top contained a collection of gases that had a much higher energy oxygen content than they did hydrogen content

C. The small flask at the bottom contained hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde and represented an ocean of these molecules

D. Miller added amino acids and nucleotides to the large flask at the top to represent earth's early atmosphere

E. The small flask at the bottom was heated by a flame to cause water to vapor to form and rise up to the large flask where it would mix with gases and energy.

F. B and C

Blooms level 1 (knowledge): horrible question

Idea for new higher level blooms question

Objective IV

Students will be able to list and identify distinguishing properties of the 4 basic macromolecules

Objective V

Students will be able to identify the defining characteristics that distinguish life from non-life and provide examples of the characteristics in different groups of organisms.

Objective VI

Students will be able to provide evidence of RNA World Hypothesis based on the basic properties of macromolecules and the criteria for the first self-replicating molecule

Objective VII

Students will understand molecular characteristics that impact polarity and how polarity determines behavior of molecules.

Objective VIII

Students will be able to sketch a phospholipid bilayer and identify the polar and non-polar regions and explain phospolipid characteristics of length, saturation and temperature impact permeability of the membrane

Objective IIX

Students will identify key characteristics and distinguish between passive diffusion, osmosis, facilitated transport and active transport as mechanisms of membrane transport

Objective IX

Students will be able to use their fundamental knowledge of molecule polarity (objective VII) phosophlipid bilayers (objective VIII) and membrane transport (objective IIX) to predict relative levels of movement of different molecules with different phosopholipid bilayer features in the context of a biological problem.

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Exam Questions that Map to Learning Objectives for Section on Glycolysis, Cell Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis.

Objective I.Students will know the basic biochemistry of glycolysis, fermentation, cell respiration and photosynthesis so that they can apply this basic content knowledge to solving problems in these processess addressed below.

Include another objective: Students will be able to explain the roles of water in cell respiration and photosynthesis at the atomic level.

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Previous Exam Questions that Map to Objective I

Exam 1 Q8. Water

a. Is formed during the Krebs cycle of cell respiration

b. Requires membrane transporters to move through the cell membrane

c. Is formed when oxygen is reduced by accepting electrons

d. Is a nonpolar molecule

e. Accepts electrons from glucose in cell respiration

f. C and E

Blooms: Level 1 (knowledge)

Exam 2 Q15. During Photosynthesis

a. CO2 is converted to sugar as part of the light reactions

b. Light energy is converted to chemical energy

c. H2O is formed when O2 donates an electron to chlorophyll

d. Reduction of CO2 to sugar requries ATP and NADPH

e. b and c

f. b and d

Blooms: Level 1 ( knowledge)

Exam 2 Q16. Water

a. Donates an electron to chlorophyll of both photosystems causing it to be oxidized to oxygen during photosynthesis

b. Is produced during both the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis and the ETC of cell respiration

c. Accepts an electron from chlorophyll during the light reactions of photosynthesis causing it to be reduced to oxygen

d. Donates an electron to chlorophyll of just one photosystem during photosynthesis and is produced during the ETC of cell respiration

Blooms: Level 1 (knowledge)

Exam I Q11. "All of the 3 statements below are FALSE. Briefly explain why each statement is false".

A. During cell respiration, the chemial energy in sugar is converted directly to energy that is used to fuel reactions in the cell (like polymerization of nucleotides).

B. If a cell is deprived of oxygen, then NADH levels will build up and NAD+ levels will be very low

C If there is a very low demand for energy, cell respiration will continue anyway until all of the free glucose has been oxidized.

Blooms: Levels 1 and 2 (knowledge and comprehension)


Ideas for writing higher level question to address this learning objective (I)

 Set-up: Enzyme involved in transfer of electrons from NADH to oxygen blocked (but in question redefine it so not telling them that oxygen accepts electrons from NADH- they should knoow this). What will happen to the cell's production of water, NADH levels and NAD+ levels. Or show data first and have them pick which step blocked? Could use cyanide (see "Mystery of the 7 deaths") and overlap with objective III

Blooms: Levels 2 and 3 (Comprehension and Application)

Compare and contrast electron transport chain in cell respiration and photosynthesis. In your answer make sure you clearly explain the role of the electron transport chain in the larger processes. 

Blooms: Levels 2 and 3 (Comprehension and Application)

 

Formative Assesment:

*Students Read in text before class

*Warm-up FAST before class: series of questions on BB

1. What is the difference or relationship between "glycolysis" and "cell respiration"?

A. Glycolysis converts sugar to puyruvate and the pyruvate is used in cell respiration to generate O2, Energy and Water

B. Glycolysis and cell respiration are essentially the same process, we call it glycolysis in bacteria and cell respiraiton in eukaryotes

C. Any organism that carries out glycolysis must also carry out cell respiration

D. Glycolysis does not result in an any ATP production while Cell respiration does

 

2. We have learned that energy cannot be created nor detroyed. So during glycolysis and cell respiration, where does the energy (ATP) on the right side of the equation most directly come from?

A. The sun

B. The C, H and O atoms in glucose

C. The electrons in the bonds of glucose

D. Oxygen

 

3. Glycolysis

A. Occurs in the cytosol of bacteria but in the mitochondria of eukaryotes

B. Occurs in the cytosol of both bacteria and eukaryotes

C. Occurs in the mitochondria of both bacteria and eukaryotes

 

4. Fermentation

A. Produces the sugar that is used in glycolysis

B. Is the process that follows glycolysis when oxygen is not available to the organism

C. Is the process that happens after glycolysis but before cell respiration

D. Results in the same amount of ATP as cell respiration


5. Which of the following statements is true:

A. All organisms carry out aerobic cell respiration

B. Organisms can carry out cell respiraiton only if they have aceess to oxygen

C. All organisms can carry out glycolysis

 

6. During Glycolysis and Cell respiration

A. Electrons are transferred from glucose to water

B. Electrons are transferred from glucose to oxygen

C. Electrons are transferred from oxygen to water

D. Electrons are transferred from glucose to ATP

 

7. When a molecule is "oxidized",

A. It loses electrons and therefore loses energy

B. It loses electrons and therefore gains energy

C. It It gains electrons and therefore gains energy

D. It gains electrons and therefore gains energy

 

8. When a molecule is oxidized

A. Energy is released from the reaction

B. Energy is required for the reaction to occur

 

9.Which of the following is true about ATP?

A. Energy is released from ATP and used by the cell when ATP is broken down into ADP and P

B. Energy is released for cells to use when ADP binds to P to make ATP

C. ATP contains less energy than ADP

D. ATP can be generated and then stored in the cell for 24 hours before it needs to be used.

 

10. Idenitfy one concept in the reading that you had the most touble understanding.

Pre-lecture clicker question (pick question students struggled on most and modify it and re-ask)

For example: Question #2.

All organisms need food for energy. How do you get energy to stay awake in class from grilled cheese day at D-Hall?

Give them a few minutes, then ask them to try to incorporate the following terms: ATP, reduced carbon molecule, electrons, energy, transfer, oxidized, ADP into their explanation.

Write the explanations on board or powerpoint.

As they work have them write down questions they have that are inibiting their ability to answer.

Lecture

Post-lecture FAST (next class): Why is Patrick Paralyzed Case Study and Toxic Flea Dip Case (overlap with objective III)

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 Objective II. Students will be able to trace matter and energy through the processes of glycolysis, cell respiration and photosynthesis.

 

Previous Exam Questions that Map to Objective II

Exam II Q3. A carbon atom in a molecule of glucose found in the leaves of a plant could later be found as which of the following forms? Circle Yes or No for each

a. an oxygen atom in CO2     YES    /    NO

b. chemical energy in ATP formed during cell respiration of the plant     YES    /    NO

c. a carbon atom in the DNA of a butterfly that feeds on the plant's nectar     YES    /    NO

d. a carbon atom in the form of CO2 released from a neighboring plant     YES    /    NO

e. chemical energy released by the butterfly that feeds on the plant     YES    /    NO

Blooms: Level 3 (Application)

Formative Assessment (in-class activity): Students will be asked to draw a diagram showing multiple phototrophs and autotrophs and traces a carbon atom in molecules of sugar, CO2 and a biosynthetic component such as an amino acid through multiple phototrophs and autotrophs and through both photosynthesis and cell respiration. The student will include appropriate arrows and names of processes.

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Objective III.

Students will be able to use their basic knowledge of the biochemistry of fermentaiton, glycolysis, cell respiration and photosynthesis to solve problems in human heath and disease

No Previous Exam Questions that map to Objective III

See Objective I Exam Question Idea on cyanide poisoning. Set it up so first part of question addresses one objective and second part/s addresss the other objective.

Formative Assesment (in-class activity, case study):

a. Students will be asked to determine the target of a human poison affecting cell respiration ("A Case of the Toxic Flea DIp")

b. Students will be asked to determine the cellular mechanism of a metabolic disease ("Why is Patrick Paralyzed?")

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 Objective IV.

Students will understand how a balance of photosynthesis and cell respiration affects a plant at the cellular and organismal level.

 

Previous Exam Questions that map to objective IV:

Question 2 Exam 2. For professor apprecitation day, you buy your favorite Biology professor a lovely house plant. Your professor takes the plant home, places it in a windowsill and waters it every other day. Within 5 months, the plant has nearly doubled in size.

A. Where did most of this mass come from? (circle only one)

a. CO2

b. Water

c. Minerals in the soil that the plant is potted in

d. Sunlight

B. Your professor goes on a vacation for 2 weeks and asks her neighbor to take care of her precious plant. Before she leaves, she gives the neighbor a key, asks her to water the plant every other day, packs her stuff, closes all the blinds and locks the door. The neighbor waters the plant but never opens the blinds.

Which of the following would you expect the plant to do?

a. Weigh more when the professor returns from vacation than it did when she left

b. Weigh less when the professor returns from vacation than it did when she left

Explain your answer

Looking for: explanation of how photosynthesis increases mass of plant through taking in Carbon in atmosphere and reducing it to sugar, starch or other biosynthetic component that will contribute to mass of plant, some of this will be oxidized back to CO2 through respiration but net gain. Cell respiration decreases mass by oxidizing stored carbon molecules to CO2 which is released through stomata. If photosynthesis stops but cell respiration continues will have a net loss in mass until all stored reduced carbon molecules from earlier photosynthesis are oxidized and plant dies.

Blooms:

Question A: Level 1 (knowledge)

Question B: Level 1 (knowledge) and Level 2 (Comprehension)

Ideas for rewriting to higher level

Show graph of plant mass comparing two plants. One where mass increased over time and one where it didn't. Explain watering and oxygen levels the same. Ask them to form hypothesis to explain the difference. Answers likely to include the correct one (less photosynthesis b/c less light energy while cell respiration continues) as well as an answer about the soil not being as healthy to support plant growth or plant pathogen killing plant, etc. Then ask them to fill in graphs of levels of CO2 released from stomata from time point one to two, levels of CO2 taken in from stomata from time point one to two (fill in the bar for the first time points) and levels of starch stored in plant cells.

Formative Assessment: Grandma's Geraniums' Case

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Objective V. Students will be able to explain the ecological significance of metabolic diversity among prokaryotes

Previous exam questions that map to objective V:

Exam II Q 12. Diversity in Bacteria

a. Is exemplified by their ability to use a wide variety of electron acceptors and donors in cell respiration

b. Can be attributed to their ability to readily exchange DNA

c. Is introduced by mixing of genes from two parents every time bacteria reproduce

d. Allows bacteria to be useful in bioremediation and biofuel applications

e. All of the above except D

f. All of the above except C

Blooms: Level 1 (Knowledge)

Ideas for writing higher level questions to address this objective

Formative Assessment

 a. Students will be able to explain how bioremediation and biofuel production is carried out by prokaryotes that use alternative electron acceptors and donors in cell respiration

b. Students will propose a model of an ecosystem in which varying species of prokaryotes with different metabolisms coexist in an extreme environement.

Objective VI. Students will understand the evolutionary significance of glycolysis, fermentation, cell respiration and photosynthesis.

Idea for question that maps to Objective VI

Place glycolysis, cell respiration, fermentation and photosynthesis at the correct (relative) location on the tree of life and explain the location with respect to which group of organisms the process evolved in and what we know about the process to support when it evolved relative to other processes.- FIX this so less ambigious.

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